The one with 5 sets of bonded or non-bonded electrons. Axial bonds: 2 P–Cl bonds where one lies above the equatorial plane and the other below the plane to make an angle with the plane. The Trigonal Pyramidal is a shape formed when there are 3 bonds attached to the central atom of a molecule along with one lone pair. The structure is made up of mononuclear neutral species linked by van der Waals interactions. Melting and boiling points across period 3, all three molecules have five pairs of outer electrons around their central atom, so, 90° between an atom in the axial position and an atom in the equatorial position. Due to the fact that there are two possible types of X atoms (axial or equatorial) stereoisomers of trigonal bipyramidal species (with more than one type of A atom) are possible. In the trigonal bipyramidal geometry, which position- axial or equatorial - do nonbonding electrons prefer? Housecroft, Catherine E., and Alan G. Sharpe. The complex dications in 4a−c exhibit a trigonal-bipyramidal geometry with the tertiary nitrogen of the tripodal ligand and the ammonia nitrogen in the axial positions. Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. There are 2 different positions in the trigonal bipyramid axial and equatorial ; Where does the lone pair go first? Permission granted to reproduce for personal and educational use only. What is the electron-domain geometry around the a atom? Watch Queue Queue Meaning if one is axial, then the other can be equatorial (cis) or also axial (trans). This is one geometry for which the bond angles surrounding the central atom are not identical (see also pentagonal bipyramid ), because there is no geometrical arrangement with five terminal atoms in equivalent positions. For instance, when 5 valence electron pairs surround a central atom, they adopt a trigonal bipyramidal molecular geometry with two collinear axial positions and three equatorial positions. The VSEPR (valence shell electron pair repulsion) model is the what helps us identify how a molecule may or may not be trigonal bipyramidal. Since there is an atom at the end of each orbital, the shape of the molecule is also trigonal bipyramidal. 3) is also based upon a trigonal bipyramid, but the actual molecular geometry is linear with terminal iodine atoms in the two axial positions only and the three equatorial positions occupied by lone pairs of electrons (AX 2 E 3); another example of this geometry is provided by xenon difluoride, XeF 2. The first alternate shape for a 5 coordinate molecule, then, is where one of the bonding pairs of electrons is replaced with a lone pair. Trigonal bipyramidal molecular shape ax = axial ligand (on unique axis) eq = equatorial ligand (in plane perpendicular to unique axis) The five atoms bonded to the central atom are not all equivalent, and two different types of position are defined. For instance, when 5 valence electron pairs surround a central atom, they adopt a trigonal bipyramidal molecular geometry with two collinear axial positions and three equatorial positions. Axial bonds are at right angles to the equatorial bonds. Before that, however, it is important to discuss how bond angles are affected by lone pairs. Trigonal Bipyramidal Species are those that have a central p-block atom and are attached to 5 other atoms. Electronic Geometries. rather than an axial position? Lux Aeternum. Image Transcriptionclose. Explain why a trigonal bipyramidal molecule takes on the shape that it does. The axial atoms are the ones above and below the central atom.



For more information contact us at info@libretexts.org or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. <. in trigonal bipyramidal arrangements, why does a lone pair occupy an equatorial position? 05 Nov. 2010. The bond angles between the axial and equitorial atoms is 90 degrees. so Answer: estion Fini . Trigonal bipyramidal molecular shape ax = axial ligand (on unique axis) eq = equatorial ligand (in plane perpendicular to unique axis) The five atoms bonded to the central atom are not all equivalent, and two different types of position are defined. AP Chemistry. Select a subject to preview related courses: The atoms of trigonal bipyramidal molecules are arranged on two planes that intersect at the central atom. Missed the LibreFest? An ab_4 molecule has one lone pair of electrons on the a atom (in addition to the four b atoms). The complex dications in 4a−c exhibit a trigonal-bipyramidal geometry with the tertiary nitrogen of the tripodal ligand and the ammonia nitrogen in the axial positions. The central atom of the triognal bipyramidal species is bonded to 5 separate molecules. In the trigonal bipyramidal model, there are two sets of bond angles (90°/180° and 120°). Molecules The angle between bonds is less than 107.3 degrees. shape of molecule: trigonal bipyramidal; bond angle of axial atoms: 180° bond angle of equatorial atoms: 120° bond angle between an equatorial atom and an axial atom: 90° Axial atoms are in white circles; equatorial atoms are in black circles. Corresponding Author. asked May 29, 2019 in Chemistry by Ruksar ( 68.7k points) Magnetic relaxation studies in trigonal bipyramidal cobalt(II) complexes. Molecules with an trigonal bipyramidal electron pair geometries have sp 3 d (or dsp 3) hybridization at the central atom. You can see ball-and-stick models of phosphorus pentafluoride, sulfur tetrafluoride and chlorine trifluoride: atom labels Trigonal bipyramid electronic geometry The case of five coordination is a little trickier. Three orbitals are arranged around the equator of the molecule with bond angles of 120 o. [1]. These lone pairs repel each other and the two bonding pairs so that the other two iodine atoms occupy the axial positions. Trigonal bipyramidal molecular shape ax = axial ligand (on unique axis) eq = equatorial ligand (in plane perpendicular to unique axis) The five atoms bonded to the central atom are not all equivalent, and two different types of position are defined. If there are two different X atoms, then those atoms have the option of being cis or trans to each other. This means that the central atom must have an extended valence shell, in order to all for the 5 bonds to occur. For trigonal bipyramidal electron-pair geometries, however, there are two distinct X positions, as shown in (Figure 2.6.7): an axial position (if we hold a model of a trigonal bipyramid by the two axial positions, we have an axis around which we can rotate the model) and an equatorial position (three positions form an equator around the middle of the molecule). generic formula: AX 5. example: phosphorus pentafluoride PF 5. Plane Geometry is about flat shapes like lines, circles and triangles shapes that can be drawn on a piece of paper. Trigonal bipyramidal molecules.

The one with 5 sets of bonded or non-bonded electrons. There are three two-fold rotational axes of symmetry, each passing through one of the equatorial atoms and the central atom. The case of five coordination is a little trickier. Complexes with the unsymmetric ligands 2 and 3 possess both five and six membered chelate rings. The shape of the orbitals is trigonal bipyramidal. The bond angles between the two axial atoms is 180 degrees. 05 Nov. 2010. The bond angles between the equatorial atoms is 120 degrees. Trigonal bipyramidal molecular shape ax = axial ligand (on unique axis) ... is also based upon a trigonal bipyramid, but the actual molecular geometry is linear with terminal iodines in the two axial positions only and the three equatorial positions filled with lone pairs of electrons (AX 2 E 3). Its three lone pairs of electrons occupy the equatorial position. Three of the bonds are arranged along the atom’s equator, with 120° angles between them; the other two are placed at the atom’s axis. (CH3)2CO has been prepared, its structure determined and magnetic properties characterized. There are two environments in a trigonal bipyramid, axial and equatorial. In SF4 molecule, the lp electrons occupies an equatorial position in the trigonal bipyramidal arrangement to an axial position. ChemInform Abstract: AXIAL VS. EQUATORIAL BONDING IN TRIGONAL-BIPYRAMIDAL COMPLEXES, CRYSTAL AND MOLECULAR STRUCTURE OF (BIS(TRIPHENYLPHOSPHINE)IMMINIUM)TETRACARBONYLCYANOIRON(0), (((C6H5)3P)2N)(FE(CO)4CN). In Trigonal bipyramidal arrangement, electron pair at axial position are located at longer distance from nucleus of central atom than electron pair at equatorial position.
All other trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners. 3) is also based upon a trigonal bipyramid, but the actual molecular geometry is linear with terminal iodine atoms in the two axial positions only and the three equatorial positions occupied by lone pairs of electrons (AX 2 E 3); another example of this geometry is provided by … Axial and equatorial positions. It is important to understand the difference between the two, so that we can reference them in future discussion. For phosphorus pentachloride as an example, the phosphorus atom shares a plane with three chlorine atoms at 120° angles to each other in equatorial positions, and two more chlorine atoms above and below the plane (axial or apical positions). Interchange of Axial and Equatorial Atoms in Trigonal Bipyramidal Molecules. 1 decade ago. The PCl 5 molecule has a trigonal bipyramidal molecular geometry. I know this has trigonal bipyramidal geometry and therefore the bond angle is . Axial Site Occupancy by the Least Electronegative Ligands in Trigonal Bipyramidal Tetraoxyphosphoranes(1). If there are no lone pairs then the molecular geometry matches the electronic and is trigonal bipyramid. Relevance. Molecules with an trigonal bipyramidal electron pair geometries have sp 3 d (or dsp 3) hybridization at the central atom. Chem. Wikipedia. Meaning if one is axial, then the other can be equatorial (cis) or also axial (trans). Arrangement for 5 electron pairs on the surface of a sphere. The LibreTexts libraries are Powered by MindTouch® and are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. 14 SF4 Seesaw Shape 15 ClF3 and XeF2. There are five pairs of outer electrons around the central atom in each of these molecules. A trigonal bipyramidal molecule is formed when there are five electron groups present around a central atom. The PCl 5 molecule has a trigonal bipyramidal molecular geometry. This is not a molecule but it is an interesting addition to this page. The bond angles between the two axial atoms is 180 degrees. Thank you. Other Common Shapes for 5 Coordinate Molecules, http://www.tutor-pages.com/Chemistry..._Nonpolar.html, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trigona...cular_geometry, http://img.sparknotes.com/content/te...17002_0423.gif. The term "electronic geometry" means the geometry of where the electrons are surrounding the central atom. Is Clf3 Planar SO3 trigonal planar trigonal planar. What is the ideal bond angle (in degrees) of an atom with trigonal bipyramidal molecular geometry between an equatorial group and an axial group? Let us continue this discussion with the assumption that the EX5 is composed of just atoms (and not lone pairs). Is there a way to determine a more specific bond angle? Watch the recordings here on Youtube! Trigonal bipyramidal. We also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739. Again the axial atoms are bent slight from the 180 degree angle. Legal. This means that presence of lone pairs will increase electron-electron repulsion, causing a change in the bond angles. There is … If there are two different X atoms, then those atoms have the option of being cis or trans to each other. You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA. Interchange of Axial and Equatorial Atoms in Trigonal Bipyramidal Molecules. The bipyramid whose six faces are all equilateral triangles is one of the Johnson solids, (J12). According to VSEPR, electron-electron repulsion decreases in the following manner: lone pair - lone pair > lone pair - bonding pair > bonding pair - bonding pair. The angles formed by these atoms is the most stable conformation that can be maintained by the trigonal bipyramidal species. In B, the bonding pattern is the same as in A . Two orbitals are arranged along the vertical axis at 90 o from the equatorial orbitals. This molecule is called T-shaped. What is a stereoisomer? To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page. 120° 180° 90° axial equatorial. In terms of the relative strength of repulsion: These angles are obtained when all five pairs of outer electrons repel each other equally. space-filling model The Trigonal Pyramidal shape is basically a … The central atom is thus typically a p-block atom. The next possible shape is where there are two lone pairs on the central atom. The benzylamine nitrogen N33 and Cl4 occupy the axial positions while the two pyrazole nitrogen atoms (N25 and N36) and Cl5 occupy the equatorial positions. Molecules with an trigonal bipyramidal electron pair geometries have sp 3 d (or dsp 3) hybridization at the central atom. What are the other possible shapes a 5-coordinate molecule can have? There is no reason to tweak the bonds to other values. trigonal bipyramid. Axial bonds are at right angles to the equatorial bonds. Explain please. The basal plane of the trigonal bipyramid is distorted with S–In–S angles between 105.50 (2) and 135.15 (2)°, while the N3–In–N8 angles of 176.39 (7)° come close to the ideal linear arrangement of the two nitrogen donors. Those are the 5 fundamental electronic geometries. Artessa Cool Springs, Caribbean Sea Animals List, Lanzones In English, Cranberry Cosmo Face Mask, L'oreal Serie Expert Vitamino Color Shampoo, Maharashtrian Curry Recipe, Niños En Crecimiento Personajes, Karpagam Student Login, " />
The one with 5 sets of bonded or non-bonded electrons. Axial bonds: 2 P–Cl bonds where one lies above the equatorial plane and the other below the plane to make an angle with the plane. The Trigonal Pyramidal is a shape formed when there are 3 bonds attached to the central atom of a molecule along with one lone pair. The structure is made up of mononuclear neutral species linked by van der Waals interactions. Melting and boiling points across period 3, all three molecules have five pairs of outer electrons around their central atom, so, 90° between an atom in the axial position and an atom in the equatorial position. Due to the fact that there are two possible types of X atoms (axial or equatorial) stereoisomers of trigonal bipyramidal species (with more than one type of A atom) are possible. In the trigonal bipyramidal geometry, which position- axial or equatorial - do nonbonding electrons prefer? Housecroft, Catherine E., and Alan G. Sharpe. The complex dications in 4a−c exhibit a trigonal-bipyramidal geometry with the tertiary nitrogen of the tripodal ligand and the ammonia nitrogen in the axial positions. Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. There are 2 different positions in the trigonal bipyramid axial and equatorial ; Where does the lone pair go first? Permission granted to reproduce for personal and educational use only. What is the electron-domain geometry around the a atom? Watch Queue Queue Meaning if one is axial, then the other can be equatorial (cis) or also axial (trans). This is one geometry for which the bond angles surrounding the central atom are not identical (see also pentagonal bipyramid ), because there is no geometrical arrangement with five terminal atoms in equivalent positions. For instance, when 5 valence electron pairs surround a central atom, they adopt a trigonal bipyramidal molecular geometry with two collinear axial positions and three equatorial positions. The VSEPR (valence shell electron pair repulsion) model is the what helps us identify how a molecule may or may not be trigonal bipyramidal. Since there is an atom at the end of each orbital, the shape of the molecule is also trigonal bipyramidal. 3) is also based upon a trigonal bipyramid, but the actual molecular geometry is linear with terminal iodine atoms in the two axial positions only and the three equatorial positions occupied by lone pairs of electrons (AX 2 E 3); another example of this geometry is provided by xenon difluoride, XeF 2. The first alternate shape for a 5 coordinate molecule, then, is where one of the bonding pairs of electrons is replaced with a lone pair. Trigonal bipyramidal molecular shape ax = axial ligand (on unique axis) eq = equatorial ligand (in plane perpendicular to unique axis) The five atoms bonded to the central atom are not all equivalent, and two different types of position are defined. For instance, when 5 valence electron pairs surround a central atom, they adopt a trigonal bipyramidal molecular geometry with two collinear axial positions and three equatorial positions. Axial bonds are at right angles to the equatorial bonds. Before that, however, it is important to discuss how bond angles are affected by lone pairs. Trigonal Bipyramidal Species are those that have a central p-block atom and are attached to 5 other atoms. Electronic Geometries. rather than an axial position? Lux Aeternum. Image Transcriptionclose. Explain why a trigonal bipyramidal molecule takes on the shape that it does. The axial atoms are the ones above and below the central atom.



For more information contact us at info@libretexts.org or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. <. in trigonal bipyramidal arrangements, why does a lone pair occupy an equatorial position? 05 Nov. 2010. The bond angles between the axial and equitorial atoms is 90 degrees. so Answer: estion Fini . Trigonal bipyramidal molecular shape ax = axial ligand (on unique axis) eq = equatorial ligand (in plane perpendicular to unique axis) The five atoms bonded to the central atom are not all equivalent, and two different types of position are defined. AP Chemistry. Select a subject to preview related courses: The atoms of trigonal bipyramidal molecules are arranged on two planes that intersect at the central atom. Missed the LibreFest? An ab_4 molecule has one lone pair of electrons on the a atom (in addition to the four b atoms). The complex dications in 4a−c exhibit a trigonal-bipyramidal geometry with the tertiary nitrogen of the tripodal ligand and the ammonia nitrogen in the axial positions. The central atom of the triognal bipyramidal species is bonded to 5 separate molecules. In the trigonal bipyramidal model, there are two sets of bond angles (90°/180° and 120°). Molecules The angle between bonds is less than 107.3 degrees. shape of molecule: trigonal bipyramidal; bond angle of axial atoms: 180° bond angle of equatorial atoms: 120° bond angle between an equatorial atom and an axial atom: 90° Axial atoms are in white circles; equatorial atoms are in black circles. Corresponding Author. asked May 29, 2019 in Chemistry by Ruksar ( 68.7k points) Magnetic relaxation studies in trigonal bipyramidal cobalt(II) complexes. Molecules with an trigonal bipyramidal electron pair geometries have sp 3 d (or dsp 3) hybridization at the central atom. You can see ball-and-stick models of phosphorus pentafluoride, sulfur tetrafluoride and chlorine trifluoride: atom labels Trigonal bipyramid electronic geometry The case of five coordination is a little trickier. Three orbitals are arranged around the equator of the molecule with bond angles of 120 o. [1]. These lone pairs repel each other and the two bonding pairs so that the other two iodine atoms occupy the axial positions. Trigonal bipyramidal molecular shape ax = axial ligand (on unique axis) eq = equatorial ligand (in plane perpendicular to unique axis) The five atoms bonded to the central atom are not all equivalent, and two different types of position are defined. If there are two different X atoms, then those atoms have the option of being cis or trans to each other. This means that the central atom must have an extended valence shell, in order to all for the 5 bonds to occur. For trigonal bipyramidal electron-pair geometries, however, there are two distinct X positions, as shown in (Figure 2.6.7): an axial position (if we hold a model of a trigonal bipyramid by the two axial positions, we have an axis around which we can rotate the model) and an equatorial position (three positions form an equator around the middle of the molecule). generic formula: AX 5. example: phosphorus pentafluoride PF 5. Plane Geometry is about flat shapes like lines, circles and triangles shapes that can be drawn on a piece of paper. Trigonal bipyramidal molecules.

The one with 5 sets of bonded or non-bonded electrons. There are three two-fold rotational axes of symmetry, each passing through one of the equatorial atoms and the central atom. The case of five coordination is a little trickier. Complexes with the unsymmetric ligands 2 and 3 possess both five and six membered chelate rings. The shape of the orbitals is trigonal bipyramidal. The bond angles between the two axial atoms is 180 degrees. 05 Nov. 2010. The bond angles between the equatorial atoms is 120 degrees. Trigonal bipyramidal molecular shape ax = axial ligand (on unique axis) ... is also based upon a trigonal bipyramid, but the actual molecular geometry is linear with terminal iodines in the two axial positions only and the three equatorial positions filled with lone pairs of electrons (AX 2 E 3). Its three lone pairs of electrons occupy the equatorial position. Three of the bonds are arranged along the atom’s equator, with 120° angles between them; the other two are placed at the atom’s axis. (CH3)2CO has been prepared, its structure determined and magnetic properties characterized. There are two environments in a trigonal bipyramid, axial and equatorial. In SF4 molecule, the lp electrons occupies an equatorial position in the trigonal bipyramidal arrangement to an axial position. ChemInform Abstract: AXIAL VS. EQUATORIAL BONDING IN TRIGONAL-BIPYRAMIDAL COMPLEXES, CRYSTAL AND MOLECULAR STRUCTURE OF (BIS(TRIPHENYLPHOSPHINE)IMMINIUM)TETRACARBONYLCYANOIRON(0), (((C6H5)3P)2N)(FE(CO)4CN). In Trigonal bipyramidal arrangement, electron pair at axial position are located at longer distance from nucleus of central atom than electron pair at equatorial position.
All other trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners. 3) is also based upon a trigonal bipyramid, but the actual molecular geometry is linear with terminal iodine atoms in the two axial positions only and the three equatorial positions occupied by lone pairs of electrons (AX 2 E 3); another example of this geometry is provided by … Axial and equatorial positions. It is important to understand the difference between the two, so that we can reference them in future discussion. For phosphorus pentachloride as an example, the phosphorus atom shares a plane with three chlorine atoms at 120° angles to each other in equatorial positions, and two more chlorine atoms above and below the plane (axial or apical positions). Interchange of Axial and Equatorial Atoms in Trigonal Bipyramidal Molecules. 1 decade ago. The PCl 5 molecule has a trigonal bipyramidal molecular geometry. I know this has trigonal bipyramidal geometry and therefore the bond angle is . Axial Site Occupancy by the Least Electronegative Ligands in Trigonal Bipyramidal Tetraoxyphosphoranes(1). If there are no lone pairs then the molecular geometry matches the electronic and is trigonal bipyramid. Relevance. Molecules with an trigonal bipyramidal electron pair geometries have sp 3 d (or dsp 3) hybridization at the central atom. Chem. Wikipedia. Meaning if one is axial, then the other can be equatorial (cis) or also axial (trans). Arrangement for 5 electron pairs on the surface of a sphere. The LibreTexts libraries are Powered by MindTouch® and are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. 14 SF4 Seesaw Shape 15 ClF3 and XeF2. There are five pairs of outer electrons around the central atom in each of these molecules. A trigonal bipyramidal molecule is formed when there are five electron groups present around a central atom. The PCl 5 molecule has a trigonal bipyramidal molecular geometry. This is not a molecule but it is an interesting addition to this page. The bond angles between the two axial atoms is 180 degrees. Thank you. Other Common Shapes for 5 Coordinate Molecules, http://www.tutor-pages.com/Chemistry..._Nonpolar.html, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trigona...cular_geometry, http://img.sparknotes.com/content/te...17002_0423.gif. The term "electronic geometry" means the geometry of where the electrons are surrounding the central atom. Is Clf3 Planar SO3 trigonal planar trigonal planar. What is the ideal bond angle (in degrees) of an atom with trigonal bipyramidal molecular geometry between an equatorial group and an axial group? Let us continue this discussion with the assumption that the EX5 is composed of just atoms (and not lone pairs). Is there a way to determine a more specific bond angle? Watch the recordings here on Youtube! Trigonal bipyramidal. We also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739. Again the axial atoms are bent slight from the 180 degree angle. Legal. This means that presence of lone pairs will increase electron-electron repulsion, causing a change in the bond angles. There is … If there are two different X atoms, then those atoms have the option of being cis or trans to each other. You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA. Interchange of Axial and Equatorial Atoms in Trigonal Bipyramidal Molecules. The bipyramid whose six faces are all equilateral triangles is one of the Johnson solids, (J12). According to VSEPR, electron-electron repulsion decreases in the following manner: lone pair - lone pair > lone pair - bonding pair > bonding pair - bonding pair. The angles formed by these atoms is the most stable conformation that can be maintained by the trigonal bipyramidal species. In B, the bonding pattern is the same as in A . Two orbitals are arranged along the vertical axis at 90 o from the equatorial orbitals. This molecule is called T-shaped. What is a stereoisomer? To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page. 120° 180° 90° axial equatorial. In terms of the relative strength of repulsion: These angles are obtained when all five pairs of outer electrons repel each other equally. space-filling model The Trigonal Pyramidal shape is basically a … The central atom is thus typically a p-block atom. The next possible shape is where there are two lone pairs on the central atom. The benzylamine nitrogen N33 and Cl4 occupy the axial positions while the two pyrazole nitrogen atoms (N25 and N36) and Cl5 occupy the equatorial positions. Molecules with an trigonal bipyramidal electron pair geometries have sp 3 d (or dsp 3) hybridization at the central atom. What are the other possible shapes a 5-coordinate molecule can have? There is no reason to tweak the bonds to other values. trigonal bipyramid. Axial bonds are at right angles to the equatorial bonds. Explain please. The basal plane of the trigonal bipyramid is distorted with S–In–S angles between 105.50 (2) and 135.15 (2)°, while the N3–In–N8 angles of 176.39 (7)° come close to the ideal linear arrangement of the two nitrogen donors. Those are the 5 fundamental electronic geometries. Artessa Cool Springs, Caribbean Sea Animals List, Lanzones In English, Cranberry Cosmo Face Mask, L'oreal Serie Expert Vitamino Color Shampoo, Maharashtrian Curry Recipe, Niños En Crecimiento Personajes, Karpagam Student Login, " />